Four Spiritual Types:
Resources for Friends
(also known as Quakers or Members of the Religious Society of
a page in
Reba's Eclectic Collection of Musings, Images and Annotated
"Wait to feel that which stays your minds on the Lord and keeps
your eyes towards Him.
~~ Isaac Pennington, letter LXV
In creating this Web page it is my intention to provide resources of
use to members and attenders of the Ithaca Monthly Meeting of the
Religious Society of Friends as we work together to learn more about "high
stakes decision making." In particular, my goal is that readers will find
source materials online written by the eight  weighty Quakers listed
below* who are said to represent the "four spiritual types" as described
by Corrine Ware in her book Discover Your Spiritual
Type [Bethesda, Md.: The Alban Institute, 1995.] It is not the
purpose of this site be an exhaustive resources about these 8 individuals
nor on the Religious Society of Friends.
While I originally intended to link to individual documents, there are
many wonderful Web sites already on the Internet with linked resources and
I see no point in "reinventing the wheel." My hyperlinks will thus go to
the page on a site that brings my readers to the most useful starting
place for the parameters of this document. I also recommend going
backwards to the Homepage (usually the first segment of the URL /
"address") of some of these resources to find out whatever else might be
useful or of interest at that Web site, as many are quite rich.
Further, while there is plenty to read right here on the Internet,
there is even more of potential interest that has not been... and likely
will not be... scanned for upload any time soon. Books and periodicals
reside in libraries the world over and are often available through
interlibrary loan. However, many people have never initiated an
interlibrary loan, so I am including a brief tutorial at the end of this
*Note: The Quakers used as representative examples here were listed as
belonging to these "types" in a document provided by Steve Mohlke to the
ad hoc "complex / high stakes decisions working group" at our first
gathering in the spring of 2009. Unfortunately there was no bibliographic
citation on the hand-out, so I am not sure who decided on these particular
individuals or why they were put into these "types." As Christopher
Sammond rightfully points out: "I think it would also be helpful to
Friends to... name that these types are not excusivist nor hard-edged.
Most of us have one strongest suit, and one or more secondary strengths,
with one area generally underdeveloped. This is true for the Quaker greats
you have used; I could argue several of them falling reasonably well into
a different category than the one given them."
The Four Spiritual Types ~ Representative Quakers:
Thinking Spirituality - Robert Barclay, Margaret Fell, Rufus M.
JonesGoal: Tries to make sense of mystical experience [often that of
others], to name it and make it something to communicate to others.
Content is primary; focus of congruence of thought and belief. Highly
Emphasis: More study groups, better information on
faith and practice, Quaker history, theological reflection.
intellectualism and dogmatism [Many of us came to Friends to avoid the
excesses of this type of spirituality, so we tend to react strongly
against any trace of this, becoming anti-intellectual and experience-only
Heart Spirituality - George FoxGoal: Seeks transformation and
renewal of self.
Emphasis: Community, shared experience, evangelism,
warmth of feeling, energy, joy, enthusiasm.
Risks: Xenophobic attitude
that we have the answer and that it is us against the world.
Mystic Spirituality - James Naylor, Isaac PenningtonGoal: Seeks
union with God, renewal of the inner life.
Emphasis: The journey of
movement towards union with God. Hearing from God is more important than
speaking to God. Practices simplicity to hear the inner voice.
Contemplative, introspective, intuitive. Once comfortable with who they
are, they are more prone to laugh than any other type.
-- retreat from the world and external reality.
Activist Spirituality - Lucretia Mott, John WoolmanGoal: To
transform this world into the Kingdom of God.
Emphasis: Seeks through
personal crusade to regenerate society, rectify the wrongs of this world.
Action is their spiritual expression [though they may not view it as
such]. Spiritually active visionaries.
Risks: A moralistic and
unrelenting tunnel vision.
The Four Spiritual Types ~ Online Resources:
A project of Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI this site
features full texts of works no longer covered by copyright including ones
by Robert Barclay, George Fox, and John Woolman.
Part of the Lewis H. Beck Center for Electronic
Collections at Emory University, Atlanta, GA this site presently includes
works by Margaret Askew Fell Fox and some secondary material on Lucretia
This robust catalog of online works by James
Naylor is one page at the Street
Corner Society, a Web site that also has links to works by Robert
Barclay, Margaret Fell, George Fox, Lucretia Mott, Isaac Pennington, John
Woolman and many others whose works fall outside the scope of this
Edited by Beverly Wilson Palmer at Ponoma College,
Claremont, CA. Contains some primary sources as well as additional
information and links. To have a look at Lucretia Mott's beautiful
penmanship see the page entitled About Lucretia Coffin
Located in Farmington, ME it is the aim of
this publisher to make available various historical Quaker writings that
have been allowed to go out of print. Here you will find works by Robert
Barclay, James Naylor and Isaac Pennington as well as the vast collection
of resources put together and independently managed by Peter Sippel at the
The introduction to this site says that "The typical
pamphlet has certain characteristics which make it an apt vehicle for
experimental thought. It should be the right length to be read easily at a
single sitting. It should portray a single thesis without wandering from
it. It must be concerned with a topic of contemporary (though not
necessarily topical) importance. And a Quaker pamphlet, like a Quaker
sermon, must embody a concern." Included here are many of the first 300
pamphlets published by Pendle Hill between 1934 and 1993. More recent
pamphlets are available for purchase from the Pendle Hill
Bookstore. This list includes source material by Rufus M. Jones,
Lucretia Mott, Isaac Pennington, and John Woolman.
This site includes the texts of the lectures supported by
the Young Friends' Movement of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting and given
between 1916 and 1966 when the lectures were laid down. There were 44
lectures in all and the scanning and posting is an on-going project. Rufus
M. Jones is well represented here.
If you still have not found what you want, here are a few added
resources of use in Quaker Studies:
In the March, 2005 edition, Choice [Volume 42,
#7], the scholarly reviewing publication of the American Library
Association contained the following review by R. Watts of the University
of S. Carolina - Aiken
[Visited Dec'04]Established in 1871 and located on the campus of
Swarthmore College in suburban Philadelphia this library is open to the
public. Its mission is to document the history of the Religious Society of
Friends and its concerns from the 17th century to the present. One of the
resources here is a selection of photos of James and Lucretia Mott at http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/friends/mottpicindex.htm
The Special Collections
at Haverford College, Haverford, PA are well worth a visit as they have
made a special effort at collecting historical and international Quaker
materials of all types and if you have an interest in Rufus M. Jones this
collection is a "must see" as it was here that he did his undergraduate
study and taught for 41 years. The library is fortunate to house his
collection of about 1,000 books on mysticism, his personal papers and a
nearly complete set of his published works.
fairly comprehensive index of sites and resources related to the Religious
Society of Friends created and maintained by Russell Nelson of Potsdam,
NY, useful in locating a wide range of Web sites, materials,
organizations, and outreach programs.
"The Earlham School of Religion, a graduate
theological school for the Society of Friends (Quakers), has provided
access to a wealth of journals, letters, and monographs at this site. The
selected documents detail Quaker theology, spirituality, history, and
practice since the inception of the religion in the mid-17th century.
Earlham's purpose in providing access to these texts is to support Quaker
scholarship for its distance education students and to provide a resource
for local congregations. The resulting collection from a variety of Quaker
authors consists of over 500 volumes considered to be in the public
domain. Prominent Quaker figures such as George Fox and William Penn are
well represented, but the collection also includes numerous authors of
lesser prominence. Each text was scanned and encoded in XML, which allows
the scholar to view individual volumes in their original format with
original spelling. Additionally, texts are available in a plain-text
format. Users can browse the collection by author or title, but the real
value stems from the availability of outstanding search capabilities.
Scholars are able to search using Boolean or proximity operators, the
index, and biblical references. Each search can be limited by place of
publication, date, author, or gender of author. This major contribution to
Quaker scholarship is a must for all levels of researchers. Summing Up:
Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates through
faculty/researchers; general readers."
Interlibrary Loan TutorialTo accomplish a patron initiated
interlibrary loan there are two critically important Web sites you must
first visit, gather a bit of information, print out your results and take
the printed pages to the reference desk of your local public, college or
Step I. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG http://catalog.loc.gov/
for or confirm your citation: Complete, accurate publication data can be
gotten for works in and out of print through the online Catalog of the
Library of Congress. The "Basic Search" is fairly easy to navigate; the
catalog also offers a "Guided Search" option. Search for the author (or
subject or title) of interest to you and scroll down to see the links to
items in the collections of the Library of Congress.
SAMPLE SEASRCH: Click on "Basic Search"
Type in "lucretia
Select "Author / Creator Keyword" from the drop down list
Note: You may use a first name, last name format and no capital letters
and it still works.
The search results in 10 potential items through a link that says:
"Mott, Lucretia, 1793-1880" in the Heading field, click on that link.
Note the information provided at the upper left corner of the screen,
which can be very helpful:
DATABASE: Library of Congress Online
YOU SEARCHED: Author/Creator Keyword = lucretia mott
RESULTS: Displaying 1 through 10 of 10.
The search results can be sorted, my preference is usually to see most
recently published items first (i.e. most likely to be readily available),
so I generally sort using "Date (Descending)" from the choices in the drop
Next, choose a catalog record to examine, in this case the
third item in the list fits the criteria of source material written by
Lucretia Mott: Lucretia Mott, Her Complete Speeches and Sermons.
To see the record, click on the title.
I find it useful to e-mail the
citation to myself, or sometimes I want to share it with or someone else;
use the tool at the bottom of the page to do this.
When deciding on the
format for e-mailing, I always chose "Full Citation" so as to have
everything that may be needed at a future time without having to repeat
this search. I do this even if I only need brief information at
Should you wish to share your find with someone else it will
come to them having an odd subject & sender and may be redirected to
their Bulk or Junk Mail, so warn them to watch for it.
To see the full
citation now just click on the "LCCN Permalink."
If, after viewing the
record this were not what was wanted or there is a desire to search the
initial results list for additional items, return to the list by using the
"Back" button on the Browser.
Once you have a print out of the full citation of the material to be
interlibrary loaned, the next step is to find out which libraries own it.
The Library of Congress does not interlibrary loan its holdings. You will
want to find out if any other libraries own the material you wish to read.
Step II. WORLDCAT http://www.worldcat.org/
search box just type in enough information to get a precise search for
your desired item. In this sample search "mott sermons" brought up too
many results, so an easy revision to "lucretia mott sermons" yielded
results with the record for the item already searched at the Library of
Congress coming up first in WorldCat.
As with the Library of Congress Catalog, toward the top of the results
list is some useful on how many items your search resulted in and some
sorting options, should you need to use these tools.
Click on the title of the item you are interested in. You will come to
a brief citation with several cross referencing links.
Looking down on
the page you will see a lot of additional information about the item you
searched for and a place where you can input your zip code. Do so and
click "Find libraries." Owning institutions then show on the screen in
order of distance, with those closest to your zip code coming up
You will want to print out the first page or two of this
information and bring it with you when you go see your librarian.
this sample search 577 libraries owned this title, with 19 of those copies
being within 100 miles of my zip code, and the furthest away at Murdoch
University in Australia, 11400 miles away. You only need to print out a
page or two listing the closest locations, just to assure the librarian
that the book is available. The library placing the loan will determine
who to contact about the loan.
Interlibrary loans are just that -- loans of materials between
institutions, so you will need to go to either a public library where you
are a member or to a college or university library where you have
borrowing privileges. Some libraries will charge a small fee for this
service. If asked, I suggest saying up to $5.00 (if you are willing to pay
anything). Generally there is no cost involved however; you are more
likely to get what you want if you indicate a willingness to pay a nominal
fee. If what you are want to read is so specialized that only a very few,
or only private institutions own it, consider increasing the amount you
are willing to pay to off-set costs involved in communication, shipping
This page in THE FOXFILES is respectfully dedicated to all of
the faculty, administration and staff past, present and future, at the Lucretia
Mott School, P.S. 215 Queens in Far Rockaway, NY where I was fortunate
to spend many of the happiest days of my childhood. There my intellectual
curiosity and enthusiasm for life was nurtured and encouraged. It was also
there that I had my earliest exposure to both Quakerism and the struggle
for Women's Rights when I decided to read a biography about the person
whose name was displayed on the outside of the building as one of the
weekly books we were to choose and report on, either in a the form of a
written report or as a "sharing" report, in the fifth grade classroom of
Miss Marcia Levinson.
All materials offered here are choices of the author who is responsible
for the original content and any opinions expressed herein. She is not
responsible for the content of any site she has chosen to link to.
Comments, corrections and additions many be sent to:
Web page posted: Seventh Month, 16th, CE 2009; and revised: Eighth Month,
18th, CE 2009.
THE FOXFILES © 1996-2009, Rebekah